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Comment créer 20 millions d’emplois par an en Afrique

Comment créer 20 millions d’emplois par an en Afrique

L’Institut allemand pour le développement fait des recommandations au ministère de la Coopération pour développer les économies subsahariennes. Les maîtres-mots: diversification et investissements dans le secteur privé.

“Il est possible de créer 20 millions d’emplois chaque année en Afrique”, a déclaré Gerd Müller, le ministre allemand de la Coopération. Celui-ci rencontrait aujourd’hui à Berlin des think tanks africains et représentants des fondations allemandes. Ces conclusions reposent sur un rapport du DIE, l’Institut allemand pour le développement, pour qui la clef de l’emploi en Afrique est de développer le secteur privé en priorité.

Augmenter la productivité

Plus que du chômage, l’Afrique souffre du sous-emploi, d’un manque de productivité et de la précarité, trois problèmes auxquels il faut remédier, selon le rapport du DIE.
L’Afrique aurait en effet besoin de créer entre 18 et 20 millions d’emplois par an d’ici 2035, d’après les estimations du FMI, pour absorber les nouveaux entrants sur le marché du travail.
Mais pour servir à quelque chose, il faut que ces emplois soient stables, bien payés… et l’économie diversifiée.

Renforcer le secteur privé

Etant donnée la faiblesse des Etats africains et de leurs recettes fiscales, le DIE suggère, dans la droite ligne du « Plan Marshall » pour l’Afrique établi par l’Allemagne, de développer avant tout le secteur privé et notamment les petites entreprises, quitte à conditionner l’aide au développement à l’adoption de réformes politiques et socio-économiques pour améliorer les conditions de vie des populations et attirer les investisseurs étrangers.

Le DIE recommande de développer les transferts de compétence nord-sud, la formation et les capacités de crédit, de renforcer la paysannerie en Afrique pour assurer la subsistance de la population et augmenter les exportations grâce à des accords bilatéraux et des partenariats public/privé.

Une urbanisation qui peut être une chance

Mais il souligne aussi l’importance d’accompagner l’urbanisation en cours, en accord avec les objectifs de développement durable fixés par l’ONU, en garantissant par exemple à tous une protection sociale minimum et un accès à une énergie propre.
Le DIE estime aussi que plusieurs industries légères d’exportation (production de biens électroniques, de vêtements…) pourraient migrer dans les prochaines années de Chine vers l’Afrique en raison de la hausse des salaires en Asie.

Sans oublier le secteur informel

Par ailleurs, il convient selon le DIE de prendre en compte l’importance du secteur informel, qui représente 84% des sources de revenus en Afrique subsaharienne et de tenter de mieux le relier au secteur formel de l’économie. Inutile par exemple de créer 1.000 emplois “productifs” en ouvrant une usine à chaussures ou un centre commercial, si leur implantation détruit 5.000 emplois informels dans le quartier.
A la fin de la semaine dernière, le ministère allemand de la Coopération avait déjà annoncé vouloir renforcer son partenariat avec l’AGRA, l’Alliance pour une Révolution verte en Afrique, afin là encore de promouvoir la création d’emplois stables et écologiques en Afrique subsaharienne, tout en modernisant le milieu rural.
Notons tout de même que 20 millions d’emplois ne représentent que 2% environ de la population totale du continent.

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Vendor: Microsoft Exam Code: 070-410 dumps Exam Name: Implementing a Data Warehouse with Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Version: DemoDEMO

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QUESTION 2 You are developing a SQL Server 070-463 dumps Integration Services (SSIS) project that contains a project Connection Manager and multiple packages. All packages in the project must connect to the same database. The server name for the database must be set by using a parameter named ParamConnection when any package in the project is executed. You need to develop this project with the least amount of development effort. What should you do? (Each answer presents a part of the solution. Choose all that apply.) A. Create a package parameter named ConnectionName in each package. B. Edit each package Connection Manager. Set the ConnectionName property to @ [$Project::ParamConnection]. C. Edit the project Connection Manager 70-410 dumps in Solution Explorer. Set the ConnectionName property to @ [$Project::ParamConnection]. D. Set the Sensitive property of the parameter to True. E. Create a project parameter named ConnectionName. F. Set the Required property of the parameter to True. Correct Answer: BEF

QUESTION 3 You develop a SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) package in a project by using the Project Deployment Model. It is regularly executed within a multi-step SQL Server Agent job. You make changes to the package that should improve performance. You need to establish if there is a trend in the durations of the next 10 successful executions of the package. You need to use the least amount of administrative effort to achieve this goal. What should you do? A. After 10 executions, view the job history for the SQL Server Agent job. B. After 10 executions, in SQL Server Management Studio, view the Execution Performance subsection of the All Executions report for the project. C. Enable logging to the Application Event Log in the package control flow for the Onlnformation event. After 10 executions, view the Application Event Log. D. Enable logging to an XML file in the package control flow for the OnPostExecute event. After 10executions, view the XML file. Correct Answer: B

QUESTION 4 A SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) 2012 package currently downloads sales data from a Windows Azure SQL Database database. To improve sales data accuracy, exchange rates must be downloaded daily from a public HTTP website instead of from a weekly flat file. The public website hosts a comma- separated values (CSV) file that contains one row per currency. You need to download the CSV file to the environment. What should you use to retrieve the document from the website? A. a Script component B. a Web Service 70-331 dumps task C. a Web Service source D. a Script task Correct Answer: D

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QUESTION 10 You develop a SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) package in a project by using the Project Deployment Model. It is regularly executed within a multi-step SQL Server Agent job. You make changes to the package that should improve performance. You need to establish if there is a trend in the durations of the next 10 successful executions of the package. You need to use the least 70-412 dumps amount of administrative effort to achieve this goal. What should you do? A. Enable logging to an XML file in the package control flow for the Onlnformation event. After 10 executions, view the XML file. B. After 10 executions, view the job history for the SQL Server Agent job. C. After 10 executions, in SQL Server Management Studio, view the Execution Performance subsection of the All Executions report for the package.D. Enable logging to an XML file in the package control flow for the OnPostExecute event. After 10 executions, view the XML file. Correct Answer: C

QUESTION 11 You are editing a SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) package that contains a task with a sensitive property. You need to create a project parameter and configure it so that its value is encrypted when it is deployed to the SSIS catalog. Which three steps should you perform in sequence? (To answer, move the appropriate actions from the list of actions to the answer area and arrange them in the correct order.) Select and Place: Correct Answer: QUESTION 12 You are building a SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) package to load data from all files that are automatically copied to a directory each night through an external FTP process. You need to load data from all copied files to a destination table in SQL Server. Which three steps should you perform in sequence? (To answer, move the appropriate actions from the list of actions to the answer area and arrange 70-532 dumps them in the correct order.) Select and Place:Correct Answer:

QUESTION 13 You are creating a sales data warehouse. When a product exists in the product dimension, you update the product name. When a product does not exist, you insert a new record. In the current implementation, the DimProduct table must be scanned twice, once for the insert and again for the update. As a result, inserts and updates to the DimProduct table take longer than expected. You need to create a solution that uses a single 070-413 dumps command to perform an update and an insert. How should you use a MERGE T-SQL statement to accomplish this goal? (To answer, drag the appropriate answer choice from the list of options to the correct location or locations in the answer area. You may need to drag the split bar between panes or scroll to view content.)Select and Place:Correct Answer:

control flow is shown in the answer area.
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